Ontario's energy resources include hydro power, nuclear power, wind, crude oil, natural gas, biomass and solar. The province uses these and coal to generate electricity.
Ontario was a net exporter of refined crude products and electricity and a net importer of crude oil and coal in 2011.
The energy industry in Ontario, primarily the utilities sector, accounted for 1.9 percent of the province's gross domestic product in 2011.
In 2010, Ontario collected $4.2 billion in revenue from its energy industry, almost all of which came from electricity generation and transmission.
The energy industry in Ontario employed approximately 61,500 people in 2010.
Discover the key energy facts about Ontario.
By the numbers (1MB PDF)
The first commercial oil well in North America was dug, not drilled, by James Miller Williams in 1858 near Oil Springs, in southwestern Ontario. Oil from the well was refined into lamp oil and other products in Hamilton, Ontario. Williams' company was the first fully integrated oil company in North America.
Ontario's oil and gas industry is located in the southwest part of the province between Lake Huron and Lake Erie.
At year-end 2010, Ontario's crude oil reserves amounted to 9.9 million barrels. During 2011, Ontario conventional oil production averaged 1,359 barrels per day.
The province generated about $10.3 million in oil and gas fees, licences and royalties in 2010.
Canada's second natural gas field was discovered in southwestern Ontario in 1866, and that area of the province remained the centre of Canada's natural gas industry until the early 1900s.
At year-end 2010, Ontario's natural gas reserves totalled 678.1 billion cubic feet.
In 2011, Ontario marketed natural gas production averaged 21.7 million cubic feet per day. However, most of the natural gas consumed in Ontario comes from Western Canada.
In 2010, Ontario's consumption of natural gas averaged about 2.3 billion cubic feet per day, second only to Alberta.
Most of Ontario's natural gas reserves underlie Lake Erie.
Natural Gas Pipelines
The TransCanada Canadian Mainline delivers natural gas from the Alberta-Saskatchewan border east to the Québec-Vermont border and connects with other natural gas pipelines in Canada. In 2008, the Mainline transported an average 9.5 billion cubic feet of natural gas per day.
Enbridge's Vector Pipeline extends from the Alliance Pipeline terminus in Chicago to Dawn, Ontario for distribution to consumers in southwest Ontario. The pipeline's capacity is 1.3 billion cubic feet per day.
The Enbridge System extends from Edmonton, Alberta to Gretna, Manitoba where it enters the United States, re-entering Canada near Sarnia, Ontario and continuing to Montreal, Quebec. Since October 1999, the section of pipeline from Montreal to Sarnia (Line 9) has operated in a fully-reversed-flow mode, transporting oil from east to west.
Trans-Northern Pipelines extends from Nanticoke, Ontario to Montréal, Québec and delivers refined petroleum products to major cities and airports in southern Ontario and western Quebec.
Imperial Oil operates two refineries in Ontario – Sarnia and Nanticoke. Total throughput is 233,000 barrels of crude oil per day. Products include unleaded gasoline, jet fuel, stove oil, furnace fuel, diesel, marine fuel, propane and butane and lubricating oils, olefins, polyethylene, benzene, toluene, xylene, specialized solvents, plasticizer feedstocks. The plants employ approximately 1,300 workers.
Shell Canada's Sarnia refinery produces gasoline, distillates, liquid petroleum gas, heavy oils, pure chemicals and solvents. Throughput is almost 75,000 barrels per day. The refinery has 350 full-time employees.
Suncor's 85,000-barrel-per-day refinery at Sarnia produces gasoline, kerosene, jet and diesel fuels.
The Nova Chemicals plant near Sarnia produces ethylene, propylene, benzene and toluene all of which are raw materials for the plastics industry.
Ontario has about 200 hydro-powered generating stations, spread throughout the province but concentrated in the south. They range in installed capacity from less than one megawatt to 1,449 at the Sir Adam Beck II power station at Niagara Falls, the province's largest.
In 2011, installed capacity for hydropower was approximately 8,000 MW, or 25 per cent of the province's total installed capacity. Hydroelectricity accounted for 20.4 per cent of the electricity generated in the province.
The first hydroelectricity generating station in Ontario was completed in 1881 .near Ottawa and consisted of a waterwheel on the Ottawa River. The first high-head generating station in Canada was built at DeCew Falls in 1898.
Redevelopment of some existing hydro facilities and development of some previously assessed sites could increase installed capacity by 1,600 megawatts.
As at June 2012, Ontario has 41 wind farms, ranging in size from one turbine to 126. Installed capacities range from 0.6 megawatts to 198 megawatts at the Wolfe Island EcoPower Centre near Kingston.
Total installed Capacity is 1,636.4 megawatts, or 4.5 per cent of Ontario's total installed capacity.
Ontario has 35.7 per cent of Canada's installed capacity for wind-generated electricity.
The first wind turbine in Ontario was installed near Kincardine on the east shore of Lake Huron in 1995. The installed capacity is 0.6 megawatts.
Thermal Electricity Generation
Thermal electricity represented 39 per cent of Ontario's total installed capacity in 2011, but provided12 per cent of the electricity consumed in the province.
Ontario has four coal-fired generating stations with a combined installed capacity of 3,347 megawatts.
The province has one oil-fired generating station, Lennox, near Kingston with an installed capacity of 2100 megawatts.
In 2011, Ontario had 35 natural gas fired generating stations with a total combined installed capacity of 9,987 megawatts.
Ontario also had 11 biomass-fired facilities with a total combined installed capacity of 122 megawatts in 2010.
Thermal electricity facilities can generate power several different ways, including natural gas (represented by circles on the map), oil/diesel generation (squares), coal (triangles) and biomass (diamonds).
In 2011, Ontario had 16 operating nuclear reactors with a total net installed capacity of 11,382 megawatts, the largest installed capacity of nuclear power in Canada. Two reactors being refurbished will copme back on line later in 2012, boosting the total installed capacity to 12,882 megawatts.
Ontario has three nuclear power facilities, Darlington and Pickering on the north shore of Lake Ontario and Bruce Power on the east shore of Lake Huron, at Douglas Point near Kincardine.
Nuclear power represents 33 per cent of Ontario's installed capacity, but provides 62 per cent of the electricity consumed in the province.
Pickering A, the first nuclear generating station in Canada, began operation in 1971. Unit 7 at Pickering B holds the world record for the longest non-stop operation of a nuclear reactor – 894 days.
Ontario has eight ethanol plants with a combined production capacity of 1,154 million litres per year, and four biodiesel plants with a combined production capacity of 126 million litres per year.
Ontario Energy Exports to the United States